Diversity within the Human Species
Genetic variation in human beings has been responsible for causing increased differences in the entire human race. Consequently, there are mutations and other variations which affect the psychological aspect of human beings such that psychologists have to gain a comprehensive understanding of the genetic component and their effects on the entire mental activities of the individual (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008).
Biological and genetic variations are significant in development of the cognitive abilities of human beings especially as a result of mutations which bring about disorders. These disorders lead to varying cognitive capacities of individuals such that psychologists can be able to determine the capability of an individual based on their genetic composition. Some mutations of the brain such as schizophrenia have significant effects on the entire cognitive ability of the individual by derailing development of this element in the affected person (Solso, 2008).
Language acquisition is a vital aspect of cognitive abilities in man which is continuous throughout the lifespan such that its presence and development is exhibited in varying stages of the individual’s life. Young children who are exposed to appropriate social often have a more advanced capability to learn new languages easily than children who are never exposed to relevant language learning options early in life.
Consequently, the cognitive ability is replicated later on in life as a result of the foundation laid early in life. Some of the environmental factors which affect this cognitive ability are exposure to learning environments early in life. The learning environment should enhance the child’s ability to learn new things while genetic factors such as absence of any disorders in the nervous system (Solso, 2008).
Cognition and aging
According to these aging effects on cognition, the human brain is often derailed and deterred subsequently by old age. Consequently, research has shown that individuals who are largely affected by dementia had experienced sufficient problems with their cognitive abilities when they were growing up.
According to this paper, the language and memory theories that are part of cognition and aging have been attributed to the priming of memory representations. This is caused by the weakened connections between nodes which bind transmitter, as well as, the pathways that are included in signal relay (Mackay and Burke, 1990).
The ability to recall newly learnt information has also been linked to the age of the individual with the elderly having low abilities to recognize and remember new concepts as compared to younger individuals. The cognitive ability among the elderly is impaired by subsequent wear and tear of the nervous system thus leading to reduced cognition capability as the nerves are not as efficient as in the younger human beings (Mackay, 1990).
From the above article summary, there is a close linkage between cognitive abilities and the physiology of the individual. Physiology includes genetic variations and the biology which makes up the individual thus these two elements when exposed to appropriate atmospheric stimuli affect the cognitive ability of the person (Mackay, 1990).
This article is significant in understanding the link between the biological and environmental factors in the cognitive ability during old age. Consequently, it explains into depth the effects of each on cognition thus giving a comprehensive understanding of the concept.
Mackay, J.D. and Burke, D. M. (1990), cognition and aging: a theory of new learning and the use of old connections. Elsevier Science Publishers
Solso, R.L., Maclin, O.H., Maclin, M.K. (2008). Cognitive psychology (8th ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.